Category: Huygens principle class 12 refraction

Huygens principle class 12 refraction

In other words, the principle gives a method to know as to how light spread out in the medium. A source of light sends out wave front is propagated forwards through a homogeneous isotropic medium, Christian Huygens made the following assumptions. Consider a plane wave front AB incident on the reflecting surface XY at an angle of incidence I as shown in the figure.

The lines 1, 2 and 3 which are perpendicular to the wave font AB represent incident rays.

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AN is normal tot the reflecting surface. Similarly, the wavelets from C reach point D and from D reach E of the reflected wave from in time t.

huygens principle class 12 refraction

So the incident ray, normal to the reflecting surface and the reflected ray all lie in the same plane. This proves the second law of reflection. The refraction of light when light enters from a rarer medium to a denser medium.

Let v and c be the velocity of the light in the denser medium and in air respectively.

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The laws of refraction are:. Consider a plane wave front AB incident on a refracting plane surface XY separating two different media. The lines 1, 2, and 3 which are perpendicular to the wavefront AB represent incident rays.

AN is normal to the surface XY and I is the angle on incidence which is equal to the angle made by incident wavefront AB with the surface XY as shown in the figure. According to Huygens principle, every point on the wave front AB is a source of secondary wavelets. Similarly, the wavelet from point C of the wave front reaches D and the wavelet from D reach point E in the same time. Further, the incident ray refracted ray and the normal to the surface of separation at the point incidence all lie in the plane of the paper.

This verifies the second law of refraction. Principle of Physics. Each point on a wave front acts as a new source of the disturbance.

Reflection laws proof using Huygen's principle - Wave optics - Physics - Khan Academy

These wavelets spread out in all directions in the medium with the velocity of light. The ratio of the sine of angle incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is constant for any two given media.

The incident ray, the refracted rays and the normal at the point of an incident on the refracting surface lie on the same plane.

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Find Your Query. Syllabus Wave and Optics.

Refraction and Reflection of Plane waves using Huygens’s Principles

Electricity and Magnetism. Through a Resistance Only A. Modern Physics. Overview Each point on a wave front acts as a new source of the disturbance. The disturbances from these points are secondary wave lets. Note Things to remember Videos. The new wave front is then obtained by constructing a tangential plane to all the secondary wavelets.

The new wave front is the envelope of to secondary wavelets at that instant. Laws of Reflection on the Basis of Wave Theory Conclusion of laws of reflection on the basis of wave theory: The angle of reflection r is equal to the angle of incidence i for all wavelengths and for any pairs of materials.

Things to remember Each point on a wave front acts as a new source of the disturbance. It includes every relationship which established among the people. There can be more than one community in a society.Youtube - Hindi.

Class 12 Physics Wave Optics Refraction of plane waves Refraction of plane waves In refraction, when any point of the incident wavefront interacts with boundary, secondary waves are generated and they will have some velocity. Waves in denser medium will have lesser velocity as compared to velocity in rarer medium.

The wavefront will not be a circle as the waves in two different mediums are travelling with different velocities.

Hence proved. Light rays bend away from the normal when it travels from denser medium to rarer medium. Huygens theory was able to prove all the laws of refraction. That is why his theory was accepted.

Case 2 :- Denser medium to rarer medium. In refraction any point of the incident wavefront interacts with boundary, secondary waves will be formed and these secondary waves will have some velocity. Velocity in denser medium is lesser than the velocity in the rarer medium, i. In this case there will be no refraction and total internal reflection takes place.

Class 12 Physics Wave Optics. Refraction of plane waves.Youtube - Hindi. The wavefront will be plane wavefront. When these wavefront passes through prism, the light waves and also the wavefront. This shows the reflected wavefront. Convex Lens Converging Lens :- Consider the incident wavefrontpassing through a convex lens. The incident wavefront will converge at focus. As the light rays changes its direction, the wavefront will also change as a result a curved wavefront is obtained.

Concave mirror:- The concave mirror converges the incident wavefront at the focus which is at the same side. Effects ofPrism,convex lens and concave mirrorcan be explained in terms of wave front. According to Huygens velocity of the light in the denser medium is lesser than the velocity in the rarer medium. In a prism or convex lens, velocity of wavefront inside them is lesser than the velocity outside.

Consider the fig the wave 1 will travel a very little portion of the denser medium whereas wave 2 will travel more portion of the rarer medium. This means the velocity of wave 2 is less for longer period of time because of which they take more time to come out of the prism. Wave 1 travel with lesser speed for small amount of time. So they reach faster. In case of convex lens the waves which are in middle will travel maximum portion of the denser medium.

Therefore they travel more time in the denser medium. They have less velocity as a result they will take more time as compared to the waves at the edges. As the lens is thinner at both the edges. Class 12 Physics Wave Optics. Examples for Refraction and reflection of plane waves.Refraction is defined as bending of light wave when it passes from one medium to other. The amount of bending of light depends upon the change in speed of light and the angle at which the light ray falls on the surface.

We are not able to focus light onto the retina without the bending of light. The laws of refraction states that the incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal drawn perpendicular lie in the same plane. The ratio of sine of angle of incidence and angle of refraction is a constant. When the ray of light passes from rare medium to denser medium, the refracted ray inclines closer to the normal in denser medium.

If the light ray goes from denser medium to rarer medium the refracted ray departs away from the normal. Reflection of a wave is the process by which the light wave strikes an object and bounces back. This process occurs for not only light waves but also for sound waves, infrared or radio waves.

If the light falls on a smooth and clear surface, the light rays reflect back at the same angles. This type of reflection is called Specular Reflection.

The light which reflects back from the surface of a mirror is specular reflection. When the light rays hits on a surface of imperfections, it bounces back at different angles. This is called Diffuse Reflection. Law of reflection describes the behavior of light waves when it strikes on a surface. Consider a mirror surface. The light wave which moves towards the surface is called Incident Ray. After hitting the surface the light wave which bounces back is called the reflected ray.

Now consider the point where the ray is incident on the surface. Then draw a line which will be perpendicular to the surface of the mirror. The line which is drawn is called Normal Line. The normal line divides the angle into two equal angles between the incident ray and the reflected ray.

These two angles will be the angle of incidence and angle of reflection. Thus the law of reflection states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Also the incident ray, the reflected ray and normal which is drawn at the point of incidence, all lie in the same plane. Laws of Reflection. These two optical phenomena can be considered in the formation of rainbow.

Both refraction and reflection work within a rainbow.

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Light is refracted when the sunlight enters into the water drop. Thus the rays bend at different angles depending on the wavelength of light. Then some of the light will reflect off the back of the drop and again passes back into the air. The light is again refracted when it leaves the drop. Thus the formation of rainbow occurs.

Huygens proposed the wave theory of light. He suggested that light travels in the form of waves. These secondary wavelets transmits with the velocity of light in the same medium. A wavefront is a real or imaginary surface where the phase of oscillation is the same. The velocity of light changes when passes from one medium to another. This bending of light wave when it enters into other medium is called Refraction.

As per the diagram shown below consider a plane wave front AB which is incident on the surface.We will see in this topic how Huygens explained the law of reflection and refraction through the wave and proved it. Here we will also see that when the light goes from one medium to another, what is the effect on its frequency, path and wavelength.

Along with, we will also read how the frequency of light changes due to the relative motion between the source of light and the observer and what formulas Doppler gave it. So here we are going to discuss the topic refraction and reflection of plane waves using Huygens principle. All the incident rays are perpendicular to AB.

Therefore, the two triangles are congruent. This is the law of reflection. Consider XY is a plane surface which separates rarer medium to denser medium. All incident rays are perpendicular to AB. Angle of the incident. Angle of refraction. Then from the above relation. Suppose a source of light emits two wavefronts separated by time period T. Then two wavefront would arrive at the observer separated by the same time period T.

Since frequency is the characteristics of a source i. According to the Doppler effect in light, whenever there is a relative motion between the source and the observer, the apparent frequency or wavelength of light received by the observer is different from the actual or true frequency or wavelength of the light source.

In this case the distance between the source of light and the observer increases. The apparent frequency of light decreases and its apparent wavelength increases. Here apparent wavelength of light increases, we say that light is red shifted i.

In this case, the distance between the source of light and the observer decreases. The apparent frequency of light increases and its apparent wavelength decreases. What speed should a galaxy move with respect to us so that the sodium line at nm is observed at Explain why?

Does the reduction in speed imply a reduction in the energy carried by the light wave? What determines the intensity of light in the photon picture of light. What are the wavelength, frequency and speed of a reflected and b refracted light?

I of water is 1. What is the speed of light in glass? Speed of light in a vacuum is b Is the speed of light in glass independent of the colour of light?


If not, which of the two colours red and violet travels slower in a glass prism? Estimate the speed with which the star is receding from the Earth.

Is the prediction confirmed by experimental determination of the speed of light in water? If not, which alternative picture of light is consistent with the experiment? Use the same principle to deduce directly that a point object placed in front of a plane mirror produces a virtual image whose distance from the mirror is equal to the object distance from the mirror.

On which of these factors, if any, does a the speed of light in vacuum, b the speed of light in a medium say, glass or waterdepend?Youtube - Hindi. Class 12 Physics Wave Optics Huygens Principle Huygens Principle Huygens principle states that each point of a wavefront is the source of secondary wavelets small waves which spread in all directions with the speed of the wave. The new wavefront is formed by drawing a line tangent to all the wavelets.

For example:- If a stone is thrown in the river,waves will be formed surrounding that point. These waves look like concentric circles and they are known aswavefronts. The wavefronts gradually spread in all the directions. When the locus of all the waves is joined which are in the same phase, it will be the same as a sphere, and are known as Primary wavefront. Secondary wavefront are formed fromeach point on the Primary wavefront. The common tangential line that envelopes these secondary wavefronts will further give rise to other secondarywavefronts.

All wavefronts will gradually fade after some time. Conclusion : - According to Huygens principle, every point on a wavefront give rise to secondary wavelets which spread out in all the directions with the speed of a wave. Using Huygens principle we can determine the new position of the wavefront after time t.

Mathematically: To calculate the new position of the wavefront after time t. Distance travelled by each wave is equal to the radius of the sphere. There are 2 possibilities: - outer tangent and inner tangent. The amplitude of the back wave is 0. Therefore the back wave is neglected and the forward wave was considered. New wave front will arise from each point on the outer wavefront.

And again spheres will be obtained and by drawing common tangent will tell the position of all the new wavefront after time t 2. Again back wave is neglected and forward wavefront is considered. This shows the wavefront keep on spreading with time. Class 12 Physics Wave Optics.

huygens principle class 12 refraction

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huygens principle class 12 refraction

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Refraction and Reflection of Plane waves using Huygens’s Principles

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Stoke City: match preview, projected lineups, predictions, and how to watch New, 8 comments Its a lovefest when Heung Min Son and Kevin Wimmner reunite. Its probably the worst spell for the club since the 2014-15 season and Poch has been surprisingly positive throughout.

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In other words, its been a disappointing few weeks, but its disappointment in the midst of a glorious renaissance and a bright future. Spurs sit in a sixth place tie with Burnley at twenty-five points, though Tottenham are ahead on goal differential. We are three points behind Arsenal in fifth place, trail fourth-placed Liverpool by four points, and third-placed Chelsea by seven points.

Manchester City has already created an eight point lead over rival and second-placed Manchester United and are a whooping eighteen points clear of Spurs in early December. Wow, they are good at football. Our opponents on Saturday, Stoke City, are in sole possession of thirteenth place with sixteen points on the year thus far. Stoke are led by Eric Maxim Choupo-Moting and Mame Biram Diouf up front.

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huygens principle class 12 refraction

Daren Fletcher, who at the ripe age of thirty-three, has started every game thus far for Stoke, which is just impressive. Kurt Zouma has been a fantastic addition on-loan from Chelsea and partners with captain and Stoke City hero Ryan Shawcross. Erik Pieters, Kevin Wimmer, and Geoff Cameron all also get time across the backline too. Finally, Stoke are very strong in net with Jack Butland.

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